Better Hearing & Speech Month: Four Families of Hearing Loss

Every May, the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association sponsors Better Hearing and Speech Month. This year’s focal point is “Communication Across the Lifespan.” So, a good time for a brief rundown of the four broad categories of hearing loss: auditory processing, conductive, sensorineural, and mixed. These are the foundation upon which a hearing health care professional will diagnose an individual’s symptoms.

When the issue is the brain’s ability to process the data being provided to it by the hearing apparatus — all the complicated things inside one’s ears — it is an auditory processing disorder. It isn’t a hearing loss problem, it’s a sound comprehension issue, one that is more common in children but will occasionally beset adults. Basically, people with auditory processing disorder just “hear” some sounds differently than the vast majority of people. It can often be mistaken for a learning disorder, so professional analysis is critical.

A more mundane problem is conductive hearing loss. This is a purely physical issue when something is interfering with the pathway between the outer, middle, and inner ear. That can be something as simple as earwax, an infection causing inflammation, or too much fluid in the ear—or something a little more extreme like a punctured eardrum or unusual bone growth.

Sensorineural hearing loss is unfortunately usually permanent. It is a situation where the information flow between the ear and the brain is irreparably compromised. This occurs when the Cochlea and/or auditory nerve are somehow damaged or genetically flawed. The vast majority of users of hearing aids suffer from sensorineural issues.

When more than one of the above is happening simultaneously — almost always conductive and sensorineural in tandem — it’s referred to as mixed hearing loss. Obviously, sorting out which issue is causing multiple symptoms can be a little more complicated.